Integrating Models of Observing and Observed Activities Based on an Example of Empirical Research in Information Systems Discipline

Ilia Bider


A situation where both observing and observed activities need to be taken into consideration is not uncommon in practice. In Viable System Model (VSM), System 3* is dedicated to making sudden inspections on how the work is done “on the floor”. A typical case in research is an empirical study, where research activities are aimed at understanding the activities of the object under investigation. Though separate models of the observation activity and the observed activity are often presented, having an integrated model that connects both often falls under the radar. This article investigates how the latter model can be built and used in empirical research projects in the Information System (IS) discipline.  Articles in the IS field presenting research projects that use data from practice, as a rule, describe the practice and research process, including which research methods have been used for obtaining and analyzing the data. Some articles present models of practice under investigation using appropriate modeling notations. Some articles present a research process in some graphical form. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is no established practice of presenting a model that interconnects practical and research activities. This article tries to fill the gap, and it presents some ideas on how to build a model that integrates observing and observed activities. Such a model can be used for planning a research project and to better understand the limitations of the approaches used or to be used in the project.


Modeling; Research Process; FEM; Fractal Enterprise Model; Observer

Full Text:


DOI: 10.7250/csimq.2023-37.04


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2023 Ilia Bider

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.